Explain what the most appropriate hand washing technique would be for each of the following three scenarios:

Explain what the most appropriate hand washing technique would be for each of the following three scenarios:

a) Prior of food handlings
b) Immunising a client with a Flu Vaccination in your pharmacy
c) A surgeon preparing for surgery

Provide a rationale for your answer
2- Which of the product which used in hand washing in the table below would be the most appropriate for use in each of the above settings in Question 1
Agent Aust R # Group Uses Antimicrobial activity
70% v/v Ethyl Alcohol/

Aqium® Gel 66%w/v Alcohols • Skin Antiseptic • Reduced activity against viruses
Benzalkonium chloride Quaternary Ammonium Compounds • Skin Antiseptic
• Irrigations
• Eye Drop Preservative • Sporostatic
Chlorhexidine gluconate Chlorhexidine and other diguanides • Pre-op skin Antiseptic
• Surgical Hand Scrubs
• Treat wounds
• Bladder Irrigations • Slow acting
• Residual effect
Chloroxylenol- Roxenol/

Medol 61404 Phenols • Skin Antiseptic
• Medicated Soaps
• Inanimate surfaces • Denature by soap

3- State three reasons why it is necessary to determine the MIC for antibiotics in Vitro?
4- Discuss the Mechanism of action of PcG on E.coli, in your answer discuss
a) The Mechanism and affinity of PcG for Penicillin Binding Proteins. Compare the affinity preferences of E.coli for PcG and Cefotaxime
b) The significance of the cell shape observed Microbiologically (use diagrams)
c) The significance of the concentration of the PcG (ie less than or greater than the MIC)
5- Refer to the Mechanism of resistance to Beta-lactams discussed in Goodman and Gilman’s the pharmacological Basis of therapeutics (12th edition) to explain the result obtained in the laboratory with respect to
I. The beta- lactam resistance shown by S. aureus M908
II. The beta- lactam resistance shown by S. aureus CP11
6- How is the resistance shown by newly emerging resistance Gram Negative Organism carrying the NDM-1 gene different to those discussed in question 5?

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